A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF CAFFEINE

  • Vijay Kumar Sharma Metro College of Health Sciences and Research, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Anu Sharma Metro College of Health Sciences and Research, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Krishan Kumar Verma Metro College of Health Sciences and Research, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Praveen Kumar Gaur Metro College of Health Sciences and Research, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Rahul Kaushik Metro College of Health Sciences and Research, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Baitullah Abdali Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Paktiya University, Afghanistan.

Abstract

Caffeine is a naturally occurring methylxanthine compound found in various plants, such as coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa beans. It is widely consumed worldwide in the form of beverages, dietary supplements, and medications. Caffeine exerts its pharmacological effects primarily through its interaction with adenosine receptors, resulting in widespread physiological and neurological changes. In the field of medicinal chemistry, caffeine has been extensively studied due to its diverse pharmacological actions and potential therapeutic applications. This abstract highlights the key pharmacological actions of caffeine and its relevance in medicinal chemistry research. Caffeine acts as a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors, particularly the A1 and A2A subtypes. By inhibiting adenosine binding, caffeine prevents the activation of these receptors, leading to increased neural activity and the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate. This mechanism of action underlies caffeine’s stimulant effects, including increased alertness, reduced fatigue, and improved cognitive function. Caffeine exhibits broncho dilatory effects by acting as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, primarily targeting phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4). Inhibition of PDE4 prevents the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This property of caffeine has been utilized in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Furthermore, caffeine possesses diuretic properties by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubules. This leads to increased water excretion and urine production. The diuretic effects of caffeine have found applications in the management of fluid overload conditions, such as edema and heart failure. Additionally, caffeine has been investigated for its potential anticancer properties. Several studies have shown that caffeine can enhance the cytotoxic effects of certain chemotherapeutic agents, inhibit DNA repair mechanisms, and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. These findings have sparked interest in caffeine as an adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment, although further research is needed to establish its clinical efficacy and safety. In conclusion, caffeine exhibits a wide range of pharmacological actions, making it a versatile compound in medicinal chemistry research. Its interactions with adenosine receptors, phosphodiesterase, and renal tubules contribute to its stimulant, broncho dilatory, diuretic, and potentially anticancer effects. The understanding of caffeine’s pharmacological actions provides valuable insights for the development of novel drugs and therapeutic approaches in various fields of medicine.

Keywords: Caffeine, Adenosine receptors, Stimulant, Bronchodilator, Diuretic, Medicinal Chemistry

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How to Cite
Sharma, V., A. Sharma, K. Verma, P. Gaur, R. Kaushik, and B. Abdali. “A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF CAFFEINE”. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Vol. 6, no. 3, Dec. 2023, pp. 16-26, doi:10.31069/japsr.v6i3.04.
Section
Review Articles