Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research <p>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (JAPSR) is a multi-disciplinary international, peer-reviewed, open access journal devoted to various segments of pharmaceutical and applied sciences. It’s a quarterly published journal that publishes quality manuscripts (original research, reviews, short communications, mini reviews, case studies and conference proceedings) relevant to the various fields of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences.</p> Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research en-US Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2581-5520 IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE VIZ M AND D LEARNING COULD BE THE SOLUTION PROMISING ALTERNATIVE TO ANIMALS: A LEARNING-BASED TOXICITY RECITATION? <p>Similar to animal and human studies, the data show that when many animal models are extrapolated to humans, reliability is limited when it comes to predicting drug effects. This leads to an unbalanced waste of time and money and nightmares during drug development because the drug works well in animals or pre-clinical models and therefore fails in clinical studies or clinical trials, or <em>vice versa</em>. In this technique, machine and deep learning (M and D) is a subset of artificial intelligence. We hope this will eliminate the need for lengthy searches, reduce the number of animals sacrificed in the strategy, and reduce the cost and time required for testing. We recognize that full replacement of animals in toxicological or pre-clinical studies and tests remains a challenge - we acknowledge M and D learning-based animal toxicity prediction can be the key.</p> Rahul Kumar Mishra Rahul Kaushik Ajay Shukla Smriti Ojha Sudhanshu Mishra Rama Shankar Dubey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 5 2 1 2 10.31069/japsr.v5i2.01 AN INSIGHT INTO THE TREATMENT STRATEGIES OF OBESITY USING SEMAGLUTIDE AND ITS COMPETITIVE ANALOGUES: A REVIEW ARTICLE <p>Obesity is a major public health problem in the world. This growing rate represents an epidemic that requires immediate attention. Oral Semaglutide is a semaglutide compound with an absorption enhancer, a sodium N- (8 - [2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate (SNAC). The mechanism of action simply produces Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as a food-based digestive hormone that acts as an appetite signal, stimulates insulin release, inhibits glucagon production, and regulates diarrhea. This article shows the correlation of GLP-1 association with motivation to feed and Semaglutide’s anorectic effect and relation to cravings. We have performed complete searches from PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Medline, Medscape, and Wiley online library from 2015 to 2022. The trial data (SUSTAIN, PIONEER, STEP) suggested a major decrease in weight and HbA 1c. SELECT trial data showed cardiovascular safety of semaglutide over other anti-diabetic drugs. This review article summarized semaglutide trial data as an anti-obesity drug and compared the effects of semaglutide (oral and subcutaneous) with other GLP-1 analogs.</p> Nahid Rao Reenoo Jauhari Vaishali Sati Pallavi Godiyal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-23 2022-09-23 5 2 3 16 10.31069/japsr.v5i2.02 MELATONIN: ROLE IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF MIGRAINE <p>Melatonin and migraine have been linked in most ways, from mechanisms to treatment. Migraine is one of the common neurological diseases and it is characterized by throbbing unilateral headache attacks. Migraine is an issue for both individuals and society. Migraine can lead to reduced work productivity and a flawed family and social life. It has been suggested that melatonin plays a key therapeutic role in treating migraines and several other types of headaches. Early and exact diagnosis is essential in enhancing treatment and in preventing progression. This review aimed to evaluate the available evidence related to the efficacy and safety of melatonin in the prophylaxis and prevention of migraine. Research in regard the administration of melatonin found it safe in migraine patients, with few or no side effects. This review concluded that Melatonin can be considered a safe integrative prophylactic treatment for children, adults and menstrual-related migraines, thus improving outcomes related to patient’s quality of life and patient-centered care. However, further studies and evaluation is required to confirm its effects.This review aimed to evaluate the available evidence related to the efficacy and safety of melatonin in migraine prophylaxis. Melatonin and migraine have been linked in a majority of ways, from mechanisms to treatment. Melatonin is an endogenous hormone and is secreted by the pineal gland. It plays an important role in regulating circadian rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle. It has been proposed for migraine prevention due to its anti-inflammatory effects against calcitonin gene-related peptides and other pro-inflammatory mediators in vitro, and its pro-regulatory effect on the circadian rhythm. Also, low melatonin levels have been reported in serum and urine due to hypothalamic dysfunction in patients with migraine. Hence, in this article, we review those papers describing the results of the administration of melatonin in humans for therapeutic purposes in treating migraines.This narrative literature review was based on studies on Melatonin's effectiveness, safety and tolerability for the prophylactic and preventive treatment of migraine in children and adolescents and menstruating women. The literature search was conducted using the Google Scholar and PubMed database and included articles published up to December 2021, utilizing the keywords: “melatonin”, “migraine”, “melatonin and migraine”, and “prophylaxis of migraine”. Observational studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), case reports and systematic reviews were included. The articles focusing on the latest medication for preventing migraines were also reviewed.</p> Vaishali Sati Reenoo Jauhari Nahid Rao Pallavi Godiyal Aseem Babbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-23 2022-09-23 5 2 17 27 10.31069/japsr.v5i2.03 NANOEMULGEL BASED ON GUAR GUM AND PLURONIC® F127 CONTAINING ENCAPSULATED HESPERIDIN WITH ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The development of antioxidant cosmetic products based on natural products added to nanotechnology is gaining more and more prominence. However, some of these actives are hydrophobic, which makes their placement in aqueous systems impossible. As a strategy to deliver hydrophobic actives in hydrophilic gels, nanoemulgels have been presented.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The present study aimed to prepare an aqueous nanoemulgel based on guar gum and Pluronic® F127 as a strategy for the delivery of hesperidin, a hydrophobic flavonoid. A nanoemulsion was prepared and characterized to be incorporated into the gel. The formed nanoemulgel was evaluated for rheology and antioxidant activity.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> The nanoemulsion had a particle size of 192 ± 4 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.11 ± 0.01 and a zeta potential of -32.1 ± 0.9 mV. The encapsulation efficiency obtained was 99.35% and the rheological study of the nanoemulgel showed satisfactory gel characteristics for topical use. The antioxidant potential of nanoemulsions by the DPPH method presented an IC50 value of 14.4 ±1.3 μg mL-1 expressed in hesperidin equivalent to 17.4 mg mL-1 of the nanoemulgel. The formulated nanoemulgel delivered hesperidin<br>successfully without affecting its antioxidant properties, showing promise as a cosmetic for topical anti-aging use.</p> Isadora Freitas de Sousa Louhana Moreira Rebouças Caroline de Goes Sampaio Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo Emília Maria Alves Santos Antônio Lucas Freitas da Silva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-23 2022-09-23 5 2 28 32 10.31069/japsr.v5i2.04 THE EFFECT OF MORINGA LAM LEAF EXTRACT ON PHAGOCYTOSIS ACTIVITY OF MACROPHAGES, ROS, NO, IFN-γ, AND IL-10 ON PBMC IN ADULT PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS INDUCED BY ESAT-6 IN-VITRO <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). MTB can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, so it’s difficult to eliminate, and the BCG vaccine didn’t contain ESAT-6/CFP-10, which caused therapy and immunization couldn’t be optimal in eradicating TB. An immunomodulator is needed to improve the immune system, especially from natural ingredients. A <em>Moringa oleifera</em> plant is known to have immunomodulatory properties because of its nutrients, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins,alkaloids, and steroids.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This study aims to determine the effect of the M. oleifera leaf extract (MLE) on the phagocytic activity of macrophages, ros, no, Ifn-γ, and IL-10 induced by ESAT-6 in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Culture (PBMC) pulmonary TB patients. The research was carried out on PBMC from the blood of six pulmonary TB patients with a post-test-only control group design. The samples were divided into three groups: negative control group, positive control group (induced with ESAT-6), and intervention groups (induced with ESAT-6 and MLE at doses of 1 μg/mL, 2.5 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 25 μg/mL).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> MLE with a dose of 1 μg/mL significantly increased macrophages’ phagocytic activity, ros/no, Ifn-γ, and decreased IL-10 levels (p &lt; 0.05) as compared to the control group, whereas at a dose of ≥ 2.5 μg/mL, it decreased macrophages phagocytic activity, ros/no, Ifn-γ, and increased IL-10 levels.</p> <p><strong>Discussion:</strong> These indicate that MLE at a low dose had immunostimulant activity, but at a higher dose showed immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activity.</p> Dicky Santosa Dida A Gurnida Herri S Sastramihardja Anas Subarnas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 5 2 33 40 10.31069/japsr.v5i2.05