Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research <p>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (JAPSR) is a multi-disciplinary international, peer-reviewed, open access journal devoted to various segments of pharmaceutical and applied sciences. It’s a quarterly published journal that publishes quality manuscripts (original research, reviews, short communications, mini reviews, case studies and conference proceedings) relevant to the various fields of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences.</p> Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research en-US Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2581-5520 RECENT ADVANCEMENTS IN COUGH MANAGEMENT: EMERGING STRATEGIES AND THERAPIES <p>The management of cough, a prevalent symptom impacting the quality of life, has undergone transformative developments propelled by recent research. Cough syrups, longstanding components in cough management, have witnessed substantial progress aimed at refining efficacy, safety, and targeted delivery. Modern formulations exhibit innovations in drug delivery systems, heightening bioavailability and allowing targeted drug release. Extended-release preparations and mucoadhesive syrups offer prolonged cough suppression or augmented expectorant effects. The incorporation of innovative compounds introduces diverse treatment options; transient receptor potential (TRP) channel antagonists, targeting cough receptors, prove effective in inhibiting cough reflex hypersensitivity, while anti-inflammatory agents address underlying airway inflammation. Natural remedies like ivy leaf extract, thyme, or licorice gain prominence for their antitussive and expectorant properties. Advancements in understanding cough pathophysiology enable tailored therapies for specific cough types or underlying causes. Specialized cough syrup formulations now address neuropathic cough, chronic cough associated with respiratory diseases, or cough triggered by gastroesophageal reflux, targeting the root causes of cough. This comprehensive review underscores the evolving landscape of cough management, encompassing enhanced formulations, novel compounds, and a nuanced understanding of cough pathophysiology. These advancements signify a paradigm shift in optimizing symptomatic relief and fostering an accelerated recovery process, marking a notable stride towards improving the overall well-being of individuals affected by cough.</p> Pallavi Manish Lavhale Arti Shakya Payal Kesharwani Ankita Trivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 6 3 1 7 10.31069/japsr.v6i3.01 HEART HOLE- AN ABNORMAL BIRTH DEFECT <p>Heart hole defect is very common among newborns, it is due to structural abnormalities of the heart. Congenital means present from birth and affects almost in 100 newly born. Some Congenital heart diseases are lethal if not treated and some congenital heart diseases do not need any treatment. There are many forms of congenital heart disease such as arterial septal defects (ASD) and ventricular septal defects (VSD). These defects are usually diagnosed after a baby is born. The size of the ventricular/arterial defects may cause shortness of breath and tiredness. This present study focuses on understanding in detail congenital heart diseases their effects and their severity.</p> Amit Sharma Surbhi Sharma Mukesh Chandra Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 6 3 8 9 10.31069/japsr.v6i3.02 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON CHALCONE ANALOGUES-VERSATILE SCAFFOLD WITH MEDICINAL AND BIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL <p>This review’s main focus is on the most recent synthesis of chalcones with N, O, or S heterocycles, highlighting their biological potential. Chalcone derivatives are considered in beneficial species because they possess a keto-ethylenic moiety, CO−CH=CH−. Due to the existence of a reactive α, β-unsaturated carbonyl group, the synthesis of chalcone derivatives, which have been physiologically explored for use against specific disease targets, has been made possible by recent advances in heterocyclic chemistry. The need for novel drugs that are effective against multidrug-resistant pathogens has been driven by the growth in antibiotic resistance brought on by a variety of reasons. Chalcones are phenolic compounds that fall within the flavonoids category. They are a part of a large category of naturally occurring bioactive substances. During this review we have gone through a number of studies where chalcones were created via Claisen Schmidt condensation of suitable acetophenone with suitable aromatic aldehydes in the presence of an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide and ethanol at room temperature in an effort to create antibacterial agents. The review content have been obtained through web browsing on various scientific databases and search engines like Science Direct, Pub Med, Research Gate, Google Scholar, etc. The synthesis of diverse chalcone derivatives was motivated by the potential activity of naturally occurring chalcones as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antiparasitic characteristics, as well as by their unique chemical structural structure. Flavonoids and isoflavonoids, which are frequent chemical building blocks found in a variety of naturally derived compounds, are enhanced by chalcone. This review may prove to be helpful for the creation and design of new powerful therapeutic medications.</p> Reema Sinha Pankaj Kumar Ashish Sikdar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 6 3 10 15 10.31069/japsr.v6i3.03 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF CAFFEINE <p>Caffeine is a naturally occurring methylxanthine compound found in various plants, such as coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa beans. It is widely consumed worldwide in the form of beverages, dietary supplements, and medications. Caffeine exerts its pharmacological effects primarily through its interaction with adenosine receptors, resulting in widespread physiological and neurological changes. In the field of medicinal chemistry, caffeine has been extensively studied due to its diverse pharmacological actions and potential therapeutic applications. This abstract highlights the key pharmacological actions of caffeine and its relevance in medicinal chemistry research. Caffeine acts as a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors, particularly the A1 and A2A subtypes. By inhibiting adenosine binding, caffeine prevents the activation of these receptors, leading to increased neural activity and the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate. This mechanism of action underlies caffeine’s stimulant effects, including increased alertness, reduced fatigue, and improved cognitive function. Caffeine exhibits broncho dilatory effects by acting as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, primarily targeting phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4). Inhibition of PDE4 prevents the breakdown of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. This property of caffeine has been utilized in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Furthermore, caffeine possesses diuretic properties by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium in the renal tubules. This leads to increased water excretion and urine production. The diuretic effects of caffeine have found applications in the management of fluid overload conditions, such as edema and heart failure. Additionally, caffeine has been investigated for its potential anticancer properties. Several studies have shown that caffeine can enhance the cytotoxic effects of certain chemotherapeutic agents, inhibit DNA repair mechanisms, and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. These findings have sparked interest in caffeine as an adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment, although further research is needed to establish its clinical efficacy and safety. In conclusion, caffeine exhibits a wide range of pharmacological actions, making it a versatile compound in medicinal chemistry research. Its interactions with adenosine receptors, phosphodiesterase, and renal tubules contribute to its stimulant, broncho dilatory, diuretic, and potentially anticancer effects. The understanding of caffeine’s pharmacological actions provides valuable insights for the development of novel drugs and therapeutic approaches in various fields of medicine.</p> Vijay Kumar Sharma Anu Sharma Krishan Kumar Verma Praveen Kumar Gaur Rahul Kaushik Baitullah Abdali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 6 3 16 26 10.31069/japsr.v6i3.04 ANGIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH CHEST PAIN IN EASTERN ZONE OF AFGHANISTAN <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. Its diagnosis starts with workup of routine examinations and is confirmed by coronary angiography. The main purpose of the study was to find out angiographic findings in patients presenting with chest pain with or without electrocardiogram abnormalities.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a retrospective descriptive single setting hospital based study conducted at Afghan Momand Medical complex, a tertiary care center in Nangarhar, Afghanistan. The study included 372 patients with chest pain with or without electrocardiogram abnormalities.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of the study population was 56.6 ± 11.7 years. 50 (13.4%) patients with chest pain had normal coronary angiography (CAG) while 64 (17.2%) patient had non critical CAG and the rest had significant disease on CAG described as64 (17.2%) patients had single vessel disease (SVD) while 40 (10.8%)had double vessel disease (DVD) and the rest 82 (22%) had triple vessel disease (TVD). Left anterior descending coronary artery was the leading involved artery (206, 45%) followed by right coronary artery (133, 29%) and left circumflex (119, 26%) respectively. Incidences of TVD increased with increasing age as it was not involved in the lowest two age groups (0. 0%) while it was in involved in 24 (29.3%), 33 (40.2%), and 15 (18.3%) in the age groups 50-59, 60-69, and 70 through highest age groups respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> We concluded that coronary angiography precisely prescribed is a gold standard investigation to find out ischemic heart disease in patients with chest pain and/or electrocardiogram abnormalities. In fact, left anterior descending coronary artery was the most leading diseased artery in the forms of both single vessel disease and multiple vessel disease. Moreover, prevalence of triple vessel disease significantly increased with increasing age. Angioplasty was a matter of concern which needs to be evaluated with further researches about why some patients with single vessel disease did not undergo subsequent angioplasty and some with triple vessel disease underwent angioplasty.</p> Akmal Shams Ikramullah Ibrahimi Saifullah Hadi Hayatullah Ahmadzai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-14 2023-12-14 6 3 27 31 10.31069/japsr.v6i3.05