Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research https://japsr.in/index.php/journal <p>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (JAPSR) is a multi-disciplinary international, peer-reviewed, open access journal devoted to various segments of pharmaceutical and applied sciences. It’s a quarterly published journal that publishes quality manuscripts (original research, reviews, short communications, mini reviews, case studies and conference proceedings) relevant to the various fields of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences.</p> en-US editor@japsr.in (Managing Editor) editor@japsr.in (Editor Office) Wed, 22 May 2024 12:20:10 +0530 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 UNRAVELING AUTISM: THE ENVIRONMENT'S ROLE IN THE PUZZLE https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/265 <p>Autism is a condition characterized by early-onset challenges in social interaction and communication, alongside inflexible and repetitive behaviors and interests, forming the basis for diagnosis. The disease typically begins to show or is diagnosed around the age of two. Early signs may include hyperactivity, lack of focus, and tantrums that can be alleviated by music. In adulthood, individuals with this condition often struggle to cope with the responsibilities of daily life, find it challenging to socialize, and may feel isolated and lacking in friendships. They may develop addictions or strong attachments to specific objects or routines.These symptoms align with the diagnostic criteria, which include qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, along with restricted and repetitive interests and activities. It's crucial to recognize the non-social aspects of the condition, such as narrow interests, preference for routine, and heightened attention to detail</p> Nimmy N John, Stanley John Njattumkalayil ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/265 Wed, 22 May 2024 10:46:08 +0530 COMPREHENSIVE INSIGHTS INTO GASTRIC ULCER THERAPIES: A REVIEW OF CURRENT APPROACHES https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/249 <p>Gastric ulcers represent a significant healthcare burden globally, necessitating comprehensive management strategies to optimize patient outcomes. This review provides an overview of current treatments for gastric ulcers, covering pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, novel therapeutic approaches, and future directions for research and innovation. The introduction outlines the epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of gastric ulcers, highlighting the complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Clinical presentation and complications are discussed, emphasizing the need for effective management strategies. Pharmacological treatments, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), mucosal protective agents, anti-inflammatory agents, and antibiotic therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication, are reviewed in detail. Non-pharmacological interventions such as lifestyle modifications, endoscopic interventions, and surgical options offer complementary approaches to ulcer management. Novel therapeutic approaches, including emerging pharmacological agents, innovative endoscopic techniques, and integrative medicine approaches, hold promise for advancing ulcer treatment. Comparative effectiveness and safety analyses provide insights into treatment selection and individualized approaches. Challenges such as antibiotic resistance and adverse effects of pharmacological therapies underscore the need for continued research and innovation. Opportunities for personalized medicine and precision therapies offer potential for improving treatment outcomes and reducing the burden of gastric ulcers worldwide. In conclusion, a multidimensional approach integrating pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions is essential for effective gastric ulcer management. Future research should focus on addressing current challenges and advancing personalized therapeutic approaches to optimize patient care and outcomes.</p> Neelkanth M. Pujari, Mohammad Khushtar, Anuradha Mishra, Deepika Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/249 Wed, 22 May 2024 10:48:00 +0530 REOCURRENCE OF STENT THROMBOSIS POST ANGIOPLASTY- A COMPHRENSIVE REVIEW https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/263 <p>Coronary diseases are caused due to inability of arteries to carry sufficient oxygenated blood to the heart muscles. Mostly obstruction to the blood flow occurs due to formation of a clot in the blood vessels. Thrombosis leads to narrowing of blood vessels and to correct narrowed blood vessels a specialized medical device- stents are placed inside the vessels via angioplasty. Even after successful placement of stents and correction of blood vessel narrowing problem occurs. Stent thrombosis is such a common problem which occurs after percutaneous coronary intervention. It occurs due to formation of blood clots within or around the stent blocking the vessel partially or entirely leading to heart attack and other health issues. This review article focuses on establishing a basic understanding of stent thrombosis along with few case histories of reoccurrences of stent thrombosis where patients suffered stent thrombosis. Various online scientific and medical databases like MedScape, Medline, Science Direct, SciLit, Scopus, Web of Science, Research Gate, Google Scholar were browsed to collect the literature on ‘Stent thrombosis’ and ‘Recurrences of Stent Thrombosis’ for compilation of this review article. This study revealed that modern scientifically evolved and tested and medicated stents along with blood thinners can be a standard method for prevention of ‘stent thrombosis’.</p> Mohamad Younas Naser ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/263 Tue, 21 May 2024 16:02:19 +0530 A PANORAMIC REVIEW ON MESHPLASTY FOR HERNIA CORRECTION-A GOLD STANDARD TREATMENT APPROACH https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/261 <p>Meshplasty is a medical term used for a surgical intervention which involves the use of a biomedical device called ‘surgical mesh’ for correcting a bulging organ or tissue either in peritoneal cavity or any other gap inside or outside the body scientifically termed as ‘hernia’. It is considered as a gold-standard treatment approach for management of hernias. Surgical mesh made up of various materials like synthetic polymers or bio molecules is used for correction of hernia using surgical methods like inlay, onlay or underlay depending upon the way of placing mesh. Merits and demerits of traditional and advanced surgical methods ranging from open surgery to laproscopic and robot-assisted surgery methods are also described in this review article. A systematic literature review available in books, magazines and online databases like MedScape, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scilit, Researchgate etc was performed to collect the relevant data on ‘hernia meshplasty’. This review article gives an enhanced spectrum of information on various types of hernias and various surgical methods which are used for correction of these protrusions. The article also provides information about the various types of mesh used in performing the meshplasty, methods of mesh placement, surgery types and post surgical complications are also described.</p> Khoshal Janatzai, Mohammad Qadir Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/261 Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530 DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS FOR EMPAGLIFLOZIN https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/250 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The current study's objective is to develop and evaluate Fast dissolving tablets (FDT) for Empagliflozin. Empagliflozin, new class of oral hypoglycemic agent. It is indicated as an adjunct to exercise and diet to improve glycemic control in adult patients of type-2 diabetes.&nbsp; It acts by inhibiting sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT-2). Since oral absorption of empagliflozin from tablet is comparatively poor, hence an effort was made to enhance its absorption by formulating it as the fast dissolving tablet. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Using various quantities of Kollidon-CL &amp; Ac-Di-Sol as Superdisintegrants, FDT formulations of Empagliflozin were preared utilising the Direct Compression technique. Nine trials were developed and assessed for Pharmaceutical Product Performance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Findings indicate that all formulations meet the acceptance criteria, and kinetic modelling was applied to the <em>in-vitro</em> dissolution profiles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The best formulation (F<sub>1</sub>) contained 6 mg of Kollidon-CL and 6 mg of Ac-Di-Sol showed promising results for obtain quicker disintegration and may produce patient compliance by means of rapid onset of action and preventing first pas effect too. Formulation (F<strong><sub>1</sub></strong>) follow first order, whereas release mechanism found to be non-fickian type (n= 0.762).</p> Dr. Raghavendra Kumar Gunda, JNS Kumar, ABS Prasad, Bodepudi Sandhya, Gajja Bhargavi, KNVL Padmaja, Sriram Praveen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/250 Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530 HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND RELATED RISK FACTORS IN PAKTIA, AFGHANISTAN https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/267 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>A recent research that examined data from 62 nations found that more than half of the world’s population is infected with <em>Helicobacter pylori</em>, According to geographical prevalence estimation, nearly 4. 4 billion persons were infected worldwide in 2015. This study was used to randomly select students enrolled in a university in Paktia province, Afghanistan, for the questionnaire survey.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>Prevalence and characteristics of <em>H. pylori </em>infection: a total of 300 people were surveyed and their results showed that the prevalence of <em>H. pylori </em>infection was 41% (124/300) in a college in Paktia province, Afghanistan.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>Showed that <em>H. pylori </em>infection was associated with age, education, chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, frequent epigastric discomfort, frequent acid reflux, type of water consumed and vegetables consumed were related to each other with statistically significant differences (<em>p &lt; 0</em>.05). Factors with univariate analysis of <em>p &lt; </em>0.1 were included in the multifactorial logistic regression analysis, and the results showed that age, chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer (OR = 2.981, <em>p = 0</em>.001), (OR = 4.876, <em>p &lt; 0</em>.001), (OR = 4.057, <em>p </em>&lt; 0.001) were independent risk factors for <em>H. pylori </em>infection; Other differences did not reach statistical significance such as feeling stressed consumption of spicy food, rice and smoking (<em>p </em>&gt; 0.05). Regular consumption of rice (OR = 0.544, p = 0.019) was a protective factor against <em>H. pylori </em>infection and may reduce <em>H. pylori </em>infection to some extent.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study will further help to understand the current status, associated risk factors, prevention and intervention of <em>H.pylori </em>infection in related region.</p> Fazal Halim Arabzai, Taj Mohammad Khaskar, Noor Mohammad Wali ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/267 Tue, 21 May 2024 13:36:32 +0530 DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT OF CARVEDILOL FLOATING PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/253 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The current study's objective is to develop and evaluate Floating Pulsatile delivery systems (FDT) for Carvedilol. Carvedilol, Non selective α, β- receptor blocking agent. It is indicated for the treatment of moderate heart failure, Hypertension.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The rapid release core tablets were formulated using various concentrations of superdisintegrants such as croscaramellose sodium, crospovidone. The optimized pulsatile release tablets were prepared by using different grades of HPMC) at different concentrations Dry coated tablets were prepared by using combination of Pulsatile layer and rapid release layer. 3<sup>2 </sup>randomised full factorial design was applied to optimise the buoyant layer composition the amount of HPMC K100M (X<sub>1</sub>), Sodium bicarbonate (X<sub>2</sub>) chosen as Independent variables. Floating lag time (Y<sub>1</sub>), Total Floating time (Y<sub>2</sub>) were chosen as Dependent Variables. Nine formulations were designed and are evaluated for pharmaceutical product performance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Findings indicate that all formulations meet the acceptance criteria, and kinetic modelling was applied to the <em>in-vitro</em> dissolution profiles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The best formulation (F<sub>6</sub>) contained 80 mg of HPMC K100M and 25 mg of Sodium bicarbonate showed promising results for obtain desired floating parameters (Floating lag time 4.4 mins; Total floating time 14.3 hours) and may produce patient compliance by means of reducing dosing frequency and provide chronotherapy for effective management of morning surge of hypertension.</p> Dr Tirumala Devi Kolli, Dr Prasada Rao Manchineni, Dr. Raghavendra Kumar Gunda, Raja Mohan M ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/253 Wed, 22 May 2024 10:59:48 +0530 A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY AND COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF TOPICAL BENZOYL PEROXIDE AND MINOCYCLINE GEL WITH AND WITHOUT ADDED CHEMICAL PEEL IN ACNE TREATMENT https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/255 <p><strong>Objective:&nbsp;</strong>This prospective observational study aims to evaluate effectiveness of combination of topical benzoyl peroxide and minocycline gel comparing it with and without added chemical peel in acne vulgaris treatment</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>In This study we have observed the effectiveness of two different treatment regimens in acne treatment. Based on the GAGS Scale the severity index of subjects were observed. A cohort of 110 young and adult population are included in our study.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>A study on Acne vulgaris (110 cases, 6 months) revealed a higher prevalence among females (70.9%). Severity at visit: severe (65.4%), moderate (24.5%), very severe (10.1%). Follow-ups showed a decrease in severe cases and an increase in mild. No initial counselling on food limitations was provided. Males comprised 29.1% of cases. Further analysis may elucidate treatment efficacy and the potential impact of lifestyle factors on acne management.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>This study compares combining topical benzoyl peroxide and minocycline gel alone versus with chemical peel for acne treatment. Chemical peel adjunct shows enhanced efficacy, lower recurrence, and scar reduction. Female predominance noted among 110 patients. Regular follow-ups and standardized acne scoring recommended. Physicians should be educated on benefits of combination therapy. Result is better clinical clearance with chemical peel addition.</p> Dr R.V.S.S LathaSri, Raghavendra Kumar Gunda, Dr J.N. Suresh Kumar, K Sruthi, N Rama Krishna, Ch Surendra Reddy, KL Prasanna, P Kalyan Kumar, V Bhavana ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/255 Wed, 22 May 2024 11:14:24 +0530 A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG GESTATIONAL WOMEN https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/256 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This observational study aims to determine the prevalence and incidence of anaemia in pregnant women in the city of narsaraopeta, India.</p> <p><strong>Methods and Methodology: </strong>Information on total of 130 pregnant women who attended to ANCs from September 2023 to February 2024 were taken. Information about age, parity, educational status, no. of abortions, type of family, socioeconomic factors, dietary habits, were collected by using pre-designed questionnaire, and patient clinical data form. In this study we used a simple randomised sampling technique to select subjects.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study encompassed 130 patients from government and private ANC (Antenatal Care) care hospitals in Narasaraopet over six months. Pregnant women were predominantly aged 19-23 (49.62%) and 24-28 (37.40%). The distribution based on trimesters revealed 23.26% in the first trimester, 36.43% in the second, and 36.43% in the third. Regarding previous delivery types, graduates constituted 24.43%, illiterates 31.30%, and primary education holders 44.27%. The distribution based on the severity of anemia showed variations across follow-ups, with a significant proportion in the moderate category. Additionally, the occupation-wise distribution depicted a high percentage of housewives (65.54%) and varied percentages among others.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>. Anaemia prevalence is highest in the third trimester, persisting across follow-up periods, with a significant proportion in the 19-28 age group, highlighting challenges in managing anaemia during pregnancy.</p> SKF Subahan, Raghavendra Kumar Gunda, JNS Kumar, Jagupilla P Kumar, Kanaparthi S Rani, Nakka Prathyusha, Vaidala Visali, Gaddam Suneetha ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/256 Wed, 22 May 2024 11:29:42 +0530 A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN HYPOTHYROID PATIENTS https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/260 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The main objective of current study was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular complications in Hypothyroid patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this prospective observational study, 110 subjects have been participated. ASCVD scale is used which assess the next 10years cardiovacular risk of a patient. ASCVD score categorizes into low, intermediate, borderline and high. Hypothyroid patients are assessed with lipid profile followed by ASCVD scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> &nbsp;ASCVD risk category distribution highlights a higher percentage in the low-risk category (71.82%). The study also reveals a strong association between hypothyroidism and hyperlipidemia, with the majority of patients having ideal hyperlipidemia levels (89%). Comorbidities such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are prevalent, with a significant portion having no comorbidities (50.9%). Family history analysis shows a majority without a family history of hypothyroidism (84.5%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> From our study we concluded that despite the high prevalence of comorbidities, a substantial proportion of patients exhibited ideal lipid profiles, emphasizing the need for targeted interventions addressing modifiable risk factors. Family history and ASCVD risk assessment provide valuable insights into risk stratification and personalized treatment approaches. Overall, these findings underscore the importance of multidisciplinary approaches integrating endocrinology, cardiology, and lifestyle interventions in optimizing outcomes for hypothyroid patients at risk of cardiovascular complications.</p> Raghavendra Kumar Gunda, Shaikh Mulla Mobin, MN Priya, JNS Kumar, A Rajesh, J Tejaswini, P Radhika, SK Azaruddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://japsr.in/index.php/journal/article/view/260 Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0530