Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research <p>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (JAPSR) is a multi-disciplinary international, peer-reviewed, open access journal devoted to various segments of pharmaceutical and applied sciences. It’s a quarterly published journal that publishes quality manuscripts (original research, reviews, short communications, mini reviews, case studies and conference proceedings) relevant to the various fields of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences.</p> en-US (Managing Editor) (Editor Office) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 17:11:49 +0530 OJS 60 CLINICAL FEATURES AND MANAGEMENT OF FEBRILE SEIZURES IN PEDIATRICS <p>A febrile seizure (FS) may be defined as an event in infancy or childhood, mostly occurring between six months and five years of age. &nbsp;It is accompanied by fever but without signs of intracranial infection. These are not regarded as a type of epilepsy. Moreover, they are an age-dependent phenomenon which occurs in about 2 - 4 % of children. FS can lead to extreme fear in parents, even if they are generally harmless for children, which makes it important to manage parental anxiety in the most careful manner. This review focuses on the management of FS in the paediatric age. Most children with FS have high rate of prediction while few develop long-term health issues as shown by an analysis of the literature. Its diagnosis is clinical. Intracranial infections are important to exclude, particularly after a complex FS. Symptom control and treating the cause of the fever are elements of its management. It is crucial to improve the knowledge of paediatricians and neurologists on FS management due to the improper use of diagnostic tests and treatments and to standardize the diagnostic and therapeutic work-up.</p> Khoshal Janatzai, Maail Khan Mangal, Mohammad Hanif Ahmadzai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Jun 2023 16:36:32 +0530 BACCHARIN FROM GREEN PROPOLIS: A REVIEW OF ITS ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECTS <p>Baccharin (3-prenyl-4-dihydrocinnamoyloxy-cinnamic acid) is a prenylated phenolic compound found in the extract of the <em>Baccharis dracunculifolia</em> plant, as well as in green propolis. It is one of the main components of this resinous material, which results from the interaction between bees and plants. This substance has been extensively studied for its biological effects, mainly its anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. In this literature review, we have compiled several articles available between 1999 and 2022 that discuss scientific research carried out on baccharin. The objective is to explore the already evaluated beneficial effects of this compound in different types of tumors. The cancer begins with a genetic mutation that transforms a normal cell into a mutated cell. Subsequently, important mechanisms for its development and progression occur, including increased proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. In this regard, numerous studies are being conducted to identify natural compounds that can act on these stages of carcinogenesis, including the components of green propolis. It has already been demonstrated that baccharin can act at different stages of tumor development, exhibiting antimitotic, antiangiogenic, pro-apoptotic, and immunomodulatory activities. Additionally, baccharin has been found to interfere with carcinogenic metabolic pathways and exhibit genotoxic effects. Baccharin has demonstrated a significant antitumor activity when applied to melanoma cells, colon cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocarcinoma, sarcoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia tumor cells. Therefore, the studies cited in this review provide evidence of baccharin's ability to inhibit relevant steps in the carcinogenic process of different types of tumors.</p> Vanessa Campo, Gabriel Soubihe De Sicco, Gabriela de Oliveira Almeida, Débora Munhoz, Jairo Kenupp Bastos ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 24 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0530 ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE METHANOLIC NUT EXTRACT ATTENUATED TESTICULAR DYSFUNCTIONS IN HIGH-FAT DIET AND STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC MALE WISTAR RATS <p><strong>Background: </strong>Diabetes induces reproductive ailment and modern therapy is still unsatisfactory to combat diabetes-related reproductive impairment. This study investigated effect of <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> nut methanolic extract on testicular dysfunctions in high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Forty adult male Wistar rats weighing (180 ± 20 g) were used for the experiment. Diabetes was induced with a repeated single dose of freshly prepared streptozotocin (35 mg/kgb.wt) injected intraperitoneally after fed with HFD for six weeks. The animals were randomly allotted into five groups, 8rats/group. Group I: control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III &amp; IV: diabetic rats + low dose (100 mg/kgb.wt) and high dose (200 mg/kgb.wt) <em>Anacardium occidentale </em>nut methanolic extract; Group V: diabetic rats + 200 mg/kgbwp.o metformin for 28 days. Daily food and water intake with weekly body weight and fasting blood glucose were recorded throughout the experimental phase. On the last day of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, blood sample were collected and testes was harvested for biochemical assay.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Reproductive hormones, sperm parameters, testicular antioxidants, testicular B-cell lymphoma-2, testicular enzymes, body and weight of reproductive organs were significant (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>) reduced in diabetic rats with significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in blood glucose, insulin, sperm abnormalities, testicular caspase-3, testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), and food intake. Low dose (100 mg/kgb.wt) and high dose (200 mg/kgb.wt) <em>Anacardium occidentale </em>nut methanolic extract administration significantly (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>) improved the testicular biochemical changes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>Anacardium occidentale</em> nut attenuated testicular dysfunctions and could be a novel therapy for diabetes-induced reproductive dysfunctions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ajao Folasade O. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0530 DESIGN, FORMULATION, AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLET OF ETORICOXIB USING QUALITY BY DESIGN (QbD) APPROACH <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The current research aimed to formulate and evaluate the immediate-release tablet of etoricoxib. Etoricoxib belongs to BCS class II drugs; hence the solubility was enhanced using different techniques, thus achieving the dissolution of the drug. The formulation with maximum solubility enhancement was selected as the final formulation for the preparation of immediate-release tablets. <strong>Material and Methods:</strong> These tablets were prepared using the wet granulation technique. Sodium starch glycolate was used as a super disintegrant, microcrystalline cellulose was used as a binder, and sodium bicarbonate was used as effervescent material for the preparation of an immediate-release tablet. Different trial batches were prepared and the formulations were optimized using design expert software. The optimized formulation was prepared and evaluated for different post-compression parameters. <strong>Results and Discussion</strong>: The disintegration time was found to be 2 minutes 16 seconds and the percent cumulative drug release was found to be 90.30%. The pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug was studied and first-order kinetics was found to be the best fit model for immediate-release tablets. The accelerated stability study for the immediate-release tablet was carried out at 40℃ ±75% RH and different parameters were evaluated and were found within specified limits. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Thus immediate release tablets of etoricoxib were found to be a promising candidate for the treatment of acute pain or arthritis.</p> Anchal Sharma, Bhupendra Singh, Amit Chaudhary, Geetanjali Saini, Manish Vyas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Jun 2023 16:52:27 +0530 DEVELOPMENT OF GASTRORETENTIVE MUCOADHESIVE SOLID DOSAGES FORM CONTAINING AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE AND RANITIDINE HCL FOR THE TREATMENT OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTIONS <p>Mucoadhesion can be explored in the design of drug delivery system. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems interact with the mucus layer covering the mucosal epithelial surface, and mucin molecules, thus increasing the residence time of the dosage form at the site of absorption. The drugs having local action or possessing maximum absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) requires increased duration of stay in GIT. Gastroretentive Mucoadhesive solid dosages form containing <em>Amoxicillin Trihydrate</em> and <em>Ranitidine HCL</em> were formulated to prolong the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application or absorption, and it results in intimate contact of the dosage form with the underline absorption surface. This combination is approved by FDA for the treatment of <em>Helicobacter Pylori</em> Infections. The formulation results in efficient absorption, enhanced bioavailability of the drugs due to a high surface to volume ratio and an improved therapeutic performance of the drug. The prolonged release of drug resulted in reduced frequency of drug administration and improved patient compliance. The optimized formulation was evaluated for various parameters i.e. hardness, friability, thickness, weight variation, drug content, dissolution study and swelling index.</p> Sushmita Mishra, Shalini Sharma, Sandeep Sahu, Amrita Chourasia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Jun 2023 16:56:17 +0530 OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MELOXICAM ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS USING MIXED HYDROTROPY FOR ENHANCED WATER SOLUBILITY <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In order to attain rapid discharge in saliva and enhanced absorption, drug was incorporated in a fast-dissolving dosage form (ODTs) as a solid dispersion. &nbsp;In this present work ODTs of Meloxicam were prepared by sublimation techniques where different subliming agents were used with super disintegrant. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Hydrotropic solid dispersions were prepared using different ratios (1:2, 1:4 and 1:6) of drug and hydrotropic blends (Niacinamide, Anhy. Sodium citrate, Sodium Salicylate and Sodium benzoate). Best hydrotropic solid dispersion was selected to prepare ODTs comprising of croscarmellose sodium and camphor in different concentration along with other pharmaceutical excipients. From the primary trial batches, T<sub>3</sub> was selected for optimization experimental designs due to lowest disintegration time and highest in vitro drug release. Secondary batches (F<sub>1</sub>-F<sub>9</sub>) were prepared by using 3<sup>2</sup> full factorial design with different concentration of croscarmellose sodium (12, 14 and 16 mg) and camphor (8, 10 and 12 mg) as two independent variables while disintegration time and percent friability were considered as two dependent response variables. These formulations were subjected to study of various post compression evaluation parameters like hardness, thickness, friability, weight variation, disintegration time (25-117 sec) and in-vitro drug release (99.09%).</p> <p><strong>Result and Discussion:</strong> Equilibrium solubility studies were reported that by utilizing hydrotropy, the solubility of Meloxicam got enhanced from 20.5 to 140.96 times as compared to its aqueous solubility. The desirability fraction was used to optimize the response variables for specific targets, i.e., minimum disintegration time and maximum dissolution, and the responses obtained were consistent for experimental values.</p> Shikha Shukla, Vivek Chauhan, Rahul Kaushik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 30 Jun 2023 17:01:45 +0530