Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research <p>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (JAPSR) is a multi-disciplinary international, peer-reviewed, open access journal devoted to various segments of pharmaceutical and applied sciences. It’s a quarterly published journal that publishes quality manuscripts (original research, reviews, short communications, mini reviews, case studies and conference proceedings) relevant to the various fields of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences.</p> en-US (Managing Editor) (Editor Office) Tue, 13 Dec 2022 10:36:45 +0530 OJS 60 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON NATURAL REMEDIES FOR DIABETES: A METABOLIC DISORDER <p>Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of metabolic imbalances that involves hypertension, central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. It is linked to an increased risk of diabetes and atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). MetS have gained significant importance recently due to the exponential increase in obesity worldwide. The two main causes of this kind of syndrome are an increase in high-calorie, low-fiber fast food consumption and a decrease in physical activity owing to mechanized transportation and sedentary leisure activities. The syndrome contributes to the spread of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, and others. Herbal treatments have a long history of use in the treatment and prevention of disorders, including diabetes, when compared to conventional medicine. Diabetes is one of the world's most serious public health issues. Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome marked by hyperglycemia, changes in lipid, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism, and long-term consequences affecting the eyes, kidneys, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. For thousands of years, plants and their derivatives are being used for the treatment of diabetes and continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Also, the recent increase in the number of people suffering from diabetes worldwide and several associated complications leads to paying more attention to remedies for diabetes. Hence a review of conventional and recently explored plants useful in the treatment of diabetes concise and aimed to revert back to the conventional plant benefits and utilization of medicinal plants.</p> Vasundhara Saxena, Rahmanullah Danish, Rahul Kaushik, Krishan Kumar Verma, Vikas Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Dec 2022 09:27:01 +0530 ROPINIROLE VERSUS LEVODOPA: BETTER CLINICAL BENEFITS IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE <p>Parkinson’s disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder of the extrapyramidal nervous system affecting the mobility and control of the skeletal muscular system. Although PD can develop at any age, it begins most commonly in older adults, with a peak age at the onset of around 60 years. Levodopa and dopamine agonists such as ropinirole are used in Parkinson’s treatment. This complete literature search was done using Google Scholar and PubMed. This review is to compare the safety and efficacy of ropinirole with that of Levodopa.</p> Nahid rao, Reenoo Jauhari, Pallavi Godiyal, Vaishali Sati, Assem Babbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Dec 2022 09:47:07 +0530 AN INSIGHT INTO THE ORTHOPAEDIC IMPLANT MATERIALS: A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY <p>Bones are involved in many physiological processes like the formation of blood and also act as calcium reserves. &nbsp;Out of 206 bones in the human body, many major bones get fractured easily due to low bone density, physical injury, or any other reasons. Normally bones get healed on their own by natural processes but sometimes fracture is so complex it does not allow normal healing or formation of bones. Sometimes such complex fractures, if left untreated can result in the loss of bone’s normal functioning. So there arises a need for implants. An orthopedic implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing joint or bone or to support a damaged bone maintaining bone stability until fusion or fracture healing has occurred. The market is full of a plethora of such implants manufactured for bone fractures in different body parts and made of different materials like ceramics, metals, alloys, composites, etc. The present study is an exhaustive review of such implant materials and their advantages over one another. An exhaustive review of literature has been done in this study involving the content of scientific databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, etc.</p> Khoshal Janatzai, Oryakhil Walikhan, Khaksar Tajmohammad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Dec 2022 09:51:57 +0530 APPLICATION OF CURCUMINOIDS-LOADED NANOEMULSION FOR CANCER THERAPY <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> Curcuminoids and Oleic acid, reported in the literature as antioxidant and antitumor agents, were combined in nanoemulsion, using Pluronic F127 as a stabilizer.</p> <p><strong>METHODS:</strong> The main objective is to investigate its cytotoxic activity against cancer cells.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:</strong> The nanoemulsion show values of the particle size (251.4 ± 4.6 nm), zeta potential (-34.8 ± 1.0 mV), and pH (4.8) classifying it as stable and non-irritating for pharmacological applications. The main results indicate that, in the toxicity test in fish (Zebrafish), the nanoformulation proved to be biosafe and the evaluation of the antioxidant action (by DPPH) showed excellent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, in the vitro cytotoxicity studies, the nanoemulsions showed good cytotoxic activity, ideal for fighting Colorectal, Glioblastoma, and Leukemia cancers and more effectively in Prostate cancer.&nbsp;</p> Ethanielda de Lima Coelho, Francisco Célio Feitosa de França, Louhana Moreira Rebouças, Antônia Flávia Justino Uchoa, Luana de Morais Semião, Deyse de Sousa Maia, Denise Ramos Moreira, Daniel Pascoalino Pinheiro, Larissa Morais Ribeiro da Silva, Cláudia do Ó Pessoa, Maria Elenir Nobre Pinho Ribeiro, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Dec 2022 09:57:05 +0530 COMPARATIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF SERUM VITAMIN B12 LEVELS IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND NON-DIABETIC PATIENTS <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong></p> <p>Methylcobalamin or Vitamin B12 is a coenzyme involved in the synthesis of methionine, pyrimidine and purine bases. Type 2 diabetes is associated with oxidative stress; Vitamin B12 deficiency in diabetic patients taking metformin has been linked with oxidative stress. Because of these associations, it is implied that Vitamin B12 deficiency must be considered a risk factor for complications related to diabetes. However, several studies also suggest that deficiency of Vitamin B12 starts from the early stages of Diabetes. It has also been suggested that Vitamin B12 supplementation may help in reducing the complications related to diabetes. Although, the use of prophylactic Vitamin B12 to reduce complications related to diabetes remains controversial.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to explore the clinical relevance of Vitamin B12 in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. This study measured Vitamin B12 levels in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and explored the correlations between its serum levels and various metabolic parameters in T2DM.</p> <p><strong>RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS</strong></p> <p>This was a 1 year, single-center, prospective, comparative, observational study. To collect data on age, smoking history, alcohol consumption, physical activity status, family history of T2DM, and medications, all subjects completed a self-answered questionnaire. Plasma samples were used to assay the biochemical parameters such as FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, lipid profile, and serum Vitamin B12. The participants were divided into newly diagnosed T2DM patients (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 300) and healthy control subjects (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 300).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong></p> <p>Serum Vitamin B12 was significantly lower in newly diagnosed T2DM patients than in healthy control subjects (362.07± 182.25 vs 559.23± 275.05 pg/mL;&nbsp;<em>P</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001). Serum Vitamin B12 correlated negatively with FBS, PPBS, and HbA1c in newly diagnosed T2DM patients.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p> <p>Serum Vitamin B12 levels are significantly decreased in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. Our results suggest that adding Vitamin B12 as a supplement in the early stages of T2DM may contribute to possible microvascular (neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, etc. ) complications related to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.</p> Nahid Rao, Pharm D, Pallavi Godiyal, Pharm D, Vaishali Sati, Pharm D, Nitin Bansal, MD, Reenoo Jauhari, M pharm ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Dec 2022 10:01:57 +0530 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOLICS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS FROM THE BRAZILIAN FLORA <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> In the scientific field, several studies have been developed in order to find new antioxidant substances of plant origin. Free radicals play an important role in the biochemical/physiological reactions of the human body. However, if there is excessive production during pathophysiological processes or due to adverse environmental factors and antioxidants are not available in the medium, profound tissue damage can occur. <strong>METHODS:</strong> This article aimed to identify potential natural products with antioxidant action and with a high content of total phenolics. Seventeen native natural products were evaluated, in the antioxidant tests, the DPPH method was used and, for total phenolics, the Folin-Ciocalteau method was used. <strong>RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:</strong> The extracts that showed higher phenolic contents were <em>Anadenanthera macrocarpa</em> and <em>Triplaris gardneriana</em>, with values of 2266.84 ± 9.28 µmol g<sup>-1</sup> and 2526.13 ± 476.90 µmol g<sup>-1</sup> for antioxidants, and 563.04 ± 4.17 mg gallic acid g<sup>-1</sup> and 414.82 ± 414.82 ± 3.57 mg gallic acid g<sup>-1</sup> for phenolics. Therefore, this study contributed to help future works aimed at the development of products from the species studied.</p> Keline Lima Pereira, Caroline de Goes Sampaio, Victor Emanuel Pessoa Martins, Louhana Moreira Rebouças, João Sammy Nery de Souza, Emília M. A. Santos ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Dec 2022 10:07:48 +0530