Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research <p>Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (JAPSR) is a multi-disciplinary international, peer-reviewed, open access journal devoted to various segments of pharmaceutical and applied sciences. It’s a quarterly published journal that publishes quality manuscripts (original research, reviews, short communications, mini reviews, case studies and conference proceedings) relevant to the various fields of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences.</p> en-US (Managing Editor) (Editor Office) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 10:33:06 +0530 OJS 60 USE OF TAFENOQUINE IN ANTIMALARIAL TREATMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW <p>Besides the intensification of control measures, <em>Plasmodium vivax</em> poses a major challenge for malaria elimination efforts. This type of malaria parasite causes a persistent liver stage where the liver suffers the action of the hypnozoites, a form of the <em>P. vivax</em> that is very relevant at this stage of the infection and causes relapse of the disease and continued transmission. This literature review discusses an innovative treatment for malaria with tafenoquine (TQ), an 8-aminoquinoline synthetic primaquine analog that has been used in one dose for malaria relapse prevention and for prophylaxis due to its longer half-life, and its effects on the human body. Besides the use of tafenoquine, it was also necessary to discuss the Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, and the interaction of this enzyme with the 8-aminoquinolines, since both drugs may induce hemolytic anemia in patients with G6PD deficiency; therefore, the test to this deficiency is necessary before putting those patients under treatment with these drugs. The use of other drugs combined with tafenoquine was also reported. The drugs Primaquine, chloroquine, and other analogs, such as artemisinin and hybrids, were discussed in this article, along with their combined use and their greater or lesser help in the treatment.</p> Cristiane Tefé-Silva, Nathália Del Vecchio França Barbosa, Ana Júlia Fernandes, Anne Kareninne Domingos de Matos, Giulia Eugenio Oliveira, Isabela Buck Miele, Isabella Monteneri Benassi Melo, Marcela Toledo Bortoletto, Maria Laura Correa Aneli, Yasmin Carolina Pereira ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0530 A BRIEF REVIEW ABOUT PATIENT COUNSELLING <p>All around the world, the profession of pharmacy and the notion of pharmaceutical care are quickly evolving. In addition, the pharmacist's role in promoting logical and cautious use of medicine is becoming more important as a result of his technical and professional understanding. It is clearly known that patients who are adequately informed about medications and how to take them receive safe and effective treatment. Therapeutic pharmacists interact with patients on a frequent basis and assist with clinical treatments in addition to the numerous technical activities performed behind the counter. It is not enough to simply hand over a medicine kit to the patient or their representative; it is also necessary to hand over the correct drug to the correct person with the correct information. The act of assisting a client in seeing everything clearly, potentially from a different perspective. This might assist the client in focusing on feelings, experiences, or behaviour with the goal of achieving positive change and establishing a trusting connection. Confidentiality is essential for successful counselling.</p> Tanya Rayal, Reenoo Jauhari, Pooja Roy, Jyoti Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 10:00:53 +0530 MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY OF MEASLES FROM 21 MARCH 2021 TO 20 MARCH 2022 IN MIRWAIS REGIONAL HOSPITAL PEDIATRIC DEPARTMENT KANDAHAR AFGHANISTAN <p><strong>Background</strong>: <strong>Objectives:</strong> To study the demographic profile and mortality and morbidity &nbsp;of measles, as well as the outcome of the measles in children who were admitted to pediatric department of Mirwais regional Hospital, Kandahar Afghanistan from the 2021 to 2022. <strong>Methodology:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mirwais Regional hospital pediatric ward Kandahar Afghanistan The diagnosis of measles based on clinical features, The data of all the patients of measles who were from 1month to 15 years, and &nbsp;were admitted from measles in MRH in pediatric ward from 21 march 2021 to 20 March 2022, compiled and analyzed from the Medical Records of each case at Hospital.<a name="_Toc19408543"></a><a name="_Toc19407586"></a> Information obtained from the medical record from each patient file and was coded and entered into computer software. After that, the data were analyzed with SPSS version 22. 0.<strong> Results:</strong> Total 16792 patients were admitted during the study period and among them 1865 were confirmed as measles. Average Rate of measles was found as 11.1% among hospitalized children. There were 1050 (56.30%) male patients and 815 (43.7%) female patients with a male female ratio of 1.28:1. Among the measles patients age of onset was &lt;6 months in 38(2%), 6-12 months in 633(33.94%),13-60 months in 1028(55.12%) and 61-120 months 137(7.34%) and 29(1.55%) above in 120months .the majority of the measles children were in the age group between one year up to 5years old. Prevalence of measles during was 11.1 % in 2021 to 2022. Which has clearly high incidence in 2022 and with lower incidence of measles cases in 2021. case fatality among measles diagnosed children was 118(6.32%) in (2021 to 2022) which shows cleared increase in 2022. we also found in our study more cases were in spring and winter season N=(621-579),from&nbsp; (2021 to 2022).<strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence and case fatality of measles was higher&nbsp; &nbsp;form one year to 5years of age. Although boys were more affected by measles than girls, Majority of measles cases developed in rural &nbsp;than urban areas in 2021.</p> Nik Mohammad Zafari, M Sharif Forqani, Mir Ziaurahman Mehrabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 10:12:23 +0530 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF CHROMOLAENA ODORATA HARVESTED IN THE REGION OF THE MOUNTAIN DISTRICT OF CÔTE D'IVOIRE. <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The aromatic plants have occupied an important place in the daily life of man. The excessive and repetitive use of drugs has led the body to develop resistance to their curative effects. Many authors have focused on the study of the therapeutic properties of essential oils in order to provide new remedies. They are used as a source of bioactive molecules of natural origin.&nbsp;<strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this work is to contribute to the valorization of medicinal and aromatic plants of the Ivorian flora. We propose to determine the chemical composition and to evaluate the antioxidant activity by spectrophotometry of the essential oil.&nbsp;<strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The plant material consists of the leafy twigs of <em>C. odorata</em>. The technical of steam distillation using a four-compartment stainless steel device was used to extract the essential oil from the plant matrix. The analysis of the essential oils was carried out on a GC chromatograph (7890A, Agilent Technologies) coupled to a mass spectrometer (5975C, Agilent Technologies). The antioxidant potential of the extracts was evaluated using the Blois method. <strong>Results:&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>The essential oil obtained by steaming, with an aromatic odor and pale green color has a yield of (0.082 ± 0.004) %. Analysis of the chromatogram and mass spectra identified 24 phytocompounds (99.92%). The phytochemical composition is dominated by hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes (44.21%) followed by hydrocarbon monoterpenes (29.48%) and other compounds (26.23%). The major compound are α-pinene (17.79%), 6-propen-1-enylbicyclo [3.1.0] and hexan-2-one (14.95%) .&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:</strong> The essential oil extract of&nbsp; <em>C. odorata</em> exhibits low antioxidant activity compared to vitamin C.</p> SERAPHIN N'DRI KONAN, Yéo Sounta Oumar, Traoré Lanciné, Kouamé Bosson Antoine, MamyrBékova-Békro Janat Akhanovna, Békro Yves-Alain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 10:18:36 +0530 STUDY ON STUNTING OF 6 TO 59 MONTHS CHILDREN AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITHIN AT GARDEZ CITY, PAKTIA PROVINCE OF AFGHANISTAN <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Evidence about risk factors of Stunting is useful to design appropriate policies and strategies to control health problems. <strong>Objective:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 6-59 months in Paktia Regional Hospital. <strong>Material and Methods:</strong> A total of 400 children were included in the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurement. The interview was conducted with parents/caretakers of the children to fill the questionnaire. SPSS version 25.0 statistical software was used for analysis. Cross tabulation and Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the nutritional status of the children. <strong>&nbsp;Results:</strong> Statistical association was declared significant if the p-value was less than 0.05. &nbsp;The prevalence of Stunted was 41%. Variables; Gender, Family size, Number of children under 5, Life status of parents, Father's educational level, Mother's educational level, Annual income status, Food items do you feed to children, Awareness about weaning and supplementary food, Awareness about malnutrition, Age Weaning food should be started, Breast-feed status, period of time to feed breast, Food during Pregnancy, Status of immunity, Vaccinated during pregnancy, The age gap between babies and mothers' malnutrition (MUAC) status are statistically associated with Stunting. Height for age (stunted) is high among children aged 6–59 months in Gardez Town. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lack of awareness on malnutrition and child feeding, maternal nutrition status, family size, family income, and the age gap between babies are risk factors of malnutrition. Thus, therefore, the concerned bodies must design policies, which can improve the livelihood of households, works on information dissemination using mass media about malnutrition, weaning, and supplementary foods, and family planning and on meals during pregnancy.</p> Mohammad Hanif Ahmadzai, Khoshal Janatzai, Maail K Mangal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0530