BACCHARIN FROM GREEN PROPOLIS: A REVIEW OF ITS ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECTS
Antitumor effects of baccharin
Baccharin (3-prenyl-4-dihydrocinnamoyloxy-cinnamic acid) is a prenylated phenolic compound found in the extract of the Baccharis dracunculifolia plant, as well as in green propolis. It is one of the main components of this resinous material, which results from the interaction between bees and plants. This substance has been extensively studied for its biological effects, mainly its anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. In this literature review, we have compiled several articles available between 1999 and 2022 that discuss scientific research carried out on baccharin. The objective is to explore the already evaluated beneficial effects of this compound in different types of tumors. The cancer begins with a genetic mutation that transforms a normal cell into a mutated cell. Subsequently, important mechanisms for its development and progression occur, including increased proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. In this regard, numerous studies are being conducted to identify natural compounds that can act on these stages of carcinogenesis, including the components of green propolis. It has already been demonstrated that baccharin can act at different stages of tumor development, exhibiting antimitotic, antiangiogenic, pro-apoptotic, and immunomodulatory activities. Additionally, baccharin has been found to interfere with carcinogenic metabolic pathways and exhibit genotoxic effects. Baccharin has demonstrated a significant antitumor activity when applied to melanoma cells, colon cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocarcinoma, sarcoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and leukemia tumor cells. Therefore, the studies cited in this review provide evidence of baccharin's ability to inhibit relevant steps in the carcinogenic process of different types of tumors.