THE EFFECT OF MORINGA LAM LEAF EXTRACT ON PHAGOCYTOSIS ACTIVITY OF MACROPHAGES, ROS, NO, IFN-γ, AND IL-10 ON PBMC IN ADULT PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS INDUCED BY ESAT-6 IN-VITRO
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). MTB can inhibit phagolysosomal fusion, so it’s difficult to eliminate, and the BCG vaccine didn’t contain ESAT-6/CFP-10, which caused therapy and immunization couldn’t be optimal in eradicating TB. An immunomodulator is needed to improve the immune system, especially from natural ingredients. A Moringa oleifera plant is known to have immunomodulatory properties because of its nutrients, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins,alkaloids, and steroids.
Material and Methods: This study aims to determine the effect of the M. oleifera leaf extract (MLE) on the phagocytic activity of macrophages, ros, no, Ifn-γ, and IL-10 induced by ESAT-6 in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Culture (PBMC) pulmonary TB patients. The research was carried out on PBMC from the blood of six pulmonary TB patients with a post-test-only control group design. The samples were divided into three groups: negative control group, positive control group (induced with ESAT-6), and intervention groups (induced with ESAT-6 and MLE at doses of 1 μg/mL, 2.5 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 25 μg/mL).
Results: MLE with a dose of 1 μg/mL significantly increased macrophages’ phagocytic activity, ros/no, Ifn-γ, and decreased IL-10 levels (p < 0.05) as compared to the control group, whereas at a dose of ≥ 2.5 μg/mL, it decreased macrophages phagocytic activity, ros/no, Ifn-γ, and increased IL-10 levels.
Discussion: These indicate that MLE at a low dose had immunostimulant activity, but at a higher dose showed immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activity.