POLY CYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME: AN UPDATED REVIEW
Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine and inflammatory disorder in women associated with oligo-anovulatory infertility and cardiometabolic disorder. Insulin plays a vital role in PCOS; it is also responsible for regulating the action of ovarian and liver metabolic enzymes and also involved in the production of Androgens. The hyperandrogenism prevalence nearly (70-80%). In PCOS, the target tissue is controlled by sex hormone-binding globulin(SHBG) because this is a type of protein produced by hepatic and tightly bind with testosterone and as well as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol. Currently study reported, associated with rs6259 polymorphism with link SHBG level and PCOS in most Indian women, nearly 3-5%. The PCOS cases associated with isolated functional adrenal hyperandrogenism and the remaining case of PCOS maybe lack clinical evidence of steroids secretory dysfunction. Most of the females are obese in PCOS; the treatment approaches of PCOS are towards improving insulin tolerance reduce the level of androgen and maintain the normal menstrual cycle and regulate proper fertility. Nonpharmacological approaches are also helpful, like proper exercise, weight management, and maintain healthy diets. The etiology is still unclear, not clear, and has no cure. Some studies reported dysregulation of the gut microbiome and played the crucial role played in Pathogenesis in PCOS.