• Bhawna Damor Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacology, Geetanjali University, Udaipur-313002 (Rajasthan), India
  • Kalpesh Gaur Department of Pharmacology, Geetanjali University, Udaipur-313002 (Rajasthan), India
  • A Dashora Department of Pharmacology, Geetanjali University, Udaipur-313002 (Rajasthan), India
  • SA Parra Department of Pharmacology, Geetanjali University, Udaipur-313002 (Rajasthan), India


Introduction: Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) is commonly used in folk medicine as a single drug remedy to treat various ailments like; skin diseases, headache, wounds, ulcers, asthma, kidney disease and malaria. However, the use of the herb for treatment of pain and inflammation has not been scientifically investigated. Objective: This study of 80% methanolic crude extract of the leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia was evaluated for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties using established animal models. Material and methods: Wister albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rats per group. The control group was orally given 2 ml/kg (p.o.) of distilled water. The positive control received standard drug (Diclofenac 10 mg//kg, Indomethacin 20 mg/kg). The rest of the groups were treated with 80% methanolic extract of Guazuma ulmifolia at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. Animals were then subjected to tests using hot plate and tail-clip for analgesic activity, for anti-inflammatory activity carrageenan-induced paw edema test and histamine-induced paw edema test was used. Result and Discussion: Guazuma ulmifolia extract showed a dose-dependent significant reduction of pain in analgesia models (p<0.001) with 500 mg/kg dose producing the highest reduction. The extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced inflammation in a dose-independent manner, in which the highest reduction of inflammation was observed at 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: The data collectively indicate that 80% methanolic extract of Guazuma ulmifolia leaves has potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.


Keywords: Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Inflammation, Carrageenan, paw edema, Histamine


Download data is not yet available.


1. Rober LJ , Morrow JD, “Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Agent and Drugs Employed in the Treatment of Gout,” Goodman and Gilman’s the Pharmacological Ba- sis of Therapeutics, Mc Graw Hill Companies, America, 2001; 696.
2. Sosa S, Balick MJ, Arvigo R, Esposito RG, Pizza C, Altinier G, & Tubaro, A. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002; 81(2): 211-215.
3. Kayaalp SO. Medical pharmacology, in terms of rational treatment (Rasyonel tedavi yonunden tibbi farmakoloji), Ankara: Ha-cettepe-Tas Ldd. Sti, 1998.
4. Patel JG., Dhamat AD, Patel AA, Patel NM. Ethanomedicinal, Phytochemical and Preclinical Profile of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 2011; 1414-1426.
5. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD, Indian medicinal plants, 2nd ed, Allahabad: Lalit Mohan Basu Publications, 1935.
6. Sharma M, Yashwant, Prasad SB. Hepatoprotective Activity of Guazuma Tomentosa Leaf Extracts Against CCl4 Induced liver damage in rats. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research. 2013; 4(4): 128-138.
7. Monograph on Matumba. Raintree Nutrition Inc. Carson: January 4, 2004. [Accessed June 10, 2018]. [Online]. Available: www.rain-tree.com/Mutamba-Monograph.pdf.
8. OECD, Test No. 425: Acute Oral Toxicity - Fixed Dose Procedure. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2001. [Accessed June 10, 2018]. [Online]. Available: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/iccvam/suppdocs /feddocs/oecd/oecd_gl425.pdf.
9. LeBars D, Gozariu M. Cadden SW. Animal models of Nociception. Pharmacological Reviews. 2001; 53(4):597-652.
10. Debebe E, Makonnen E, Debella A. Anti-nociceptive effect of the methanolic extract of roots of andrachneaspera in three models of Nociception. Pharmacology Online. 2007; 1: 41-48.
11. Chakraborthy GS. Analgesic activity of various extracts of Punica granatum flowers. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 2008; 2(3): 145-146.
12. Palanichamy S, Nagarajan S. Analgesic activity of Cassia alata leaf extract and kaempferol-3-osophersode. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999; 29: 73-78.
13. Winter CA, Risley EA, Nuss GW. Carrageenan-induced edema in hind paws of the rat as an assay for Anti-Inflammatory drugs. Proceedings of the society for experimental biology and medicine. 1962; 1(3):544-7.
14. Ocete MA, Risco S, Zarzuelo A, Jimenez J. Pharmacological activity of the essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum: anti-inflammatory activity and effects on isolated uteri. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1988;25:305.
15. Kasture SB. A Handbook of Experiments in Pre-Clinical Pharmacology, 3rd ed., Nashik: Carrer Publications, 2006, 156.
16. Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Kumar RS, Kumar TS. Studies on Anti-Inflammatory, analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic properties of methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella leaves in experimental animal models. Iranain Journal of Pharmacology and therapeutics. 2003: 30-34.
17. Kumar BSA, Laksham K, Jayaveera KN, Vel MC, Kumar KPA, Kumar VR, Hegde M, Sridhar SM. Pain management in mice using methanol extracts of three plants belongs to family Amaranthaceae. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010; 527-530.
18. Lumeng CN, Saltiel AR. Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2011; 121(6): 2111–2117.
19. Punchard NA, Whelan CJ, Adcock I.The Journal of Inflammation. Journal of Inflammation. 2004; 1(1): 1–4.
47 Views | 33 Downloads
How to Cite
Damor, B., K. Gaur, A. Dashora, and S. Parra. “EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GUAZUMA ULMIFOLIA”. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Vol. 1, no. 4, Jan. 2019, pp. 23-29, doi:10.31069/japsr.v1i4.4.
Research Articles